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Table of Content

    25 October 2023, Volume 62 Issue 10
    Breeding & Cultivation
    Study on allometric driving relationship between biomass and organs geometric characteristics of millet
    WANG Si-yu, ZHANG Wu-ping, LI Fu-zhong, WANG Guo-fang, LIANG Liang
    2023, 62(10):  1-4.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.001
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    Taking hybrid millet(Setaria italica) Zhangza No.10 as experiment material, the leaf length(maximum length), leaf width(maximum width), leaf biomass, stem node length(maximum length), stem node biomass, spike length and spike biomass of different leaf position of Zhangza millet were dynamically measured through field cultivation experiment. The allometric relationship between the biomass of different organs and their geometric morphological structure characteristic parameters were analyzed, and the geometric morphological structure model of millet organs based on biomass was constructed. The results showed that the allometric relationship between leaf biomass and leaf length, stem node biomass and stem node length, and spike biomass and spike length was expressed by the power exponential equation, and the determination coefficients of the equations were 0.83, 0.77 and 0.98, respectively. The leaf biomass and leaf width showed a quadratic curve, and the determination coefficient was 0.80. The significant test results of equations all showed extremely significant level (P<0.01). The root mean square errors between the measured and simulated values of leaf length,and leaf width were 5.28 cm and 0.35 cm, respectively. The root mean square error between the measured and simulated values of stem node length was 1.17 cm. The root mean square error between the measured and simulated values of spike length was 2.40 cm. There was a significant statistical correlation between the geometric structure parameters of different organs in millet and their corresponding cumulative biomass, and the prediction of the geometric structure model of millet organs based on biomass had high accuracy.
    Phenotypic and genetic analysis of wheat near-isogenic lines in awn length
    CHEN Zhen-zhen, ZHOU Guo-qin, CHEN Jin-ping, SHI Shou-she, XIE Xu-dong, SHEN Guan-yu
    2023, 62(10):  5-8.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.002
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    A pair of near-isogenic lines CSAM1 (long awn) and CSAM2 (short awn) with different awn length were used as materials to investigate their character and photosynthetic ability, and genetic analysis of awn length was carried out. The results showed that the plant height, plant type, ear length, heading date, flowering date, spikelet number and grain number per spike were no significant difference between CSAM1 and CSAM2, and the difference of awn length was highly significant (P<0.01). The photosynthetic capacity and 1 000-grain weight of CSAM1 were higher than those of CSAM2. Genetic analysis showed that the inheritance of awn length character was controlled by a single gene, short awn was dominant and long awn was recessive.
    Breeding and application of three-line CMS line Jiafeng91A in indica hybrid rice
    HU Ji-hong, KE Chuan-yong, LIU Shan-de, HUANG Hai-yan, LIAO Guang-yi
    2023, 62(10):  9-12.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.003
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    Jiafeng91A, a three-line CMS line of indica hybrid rice(Oryza sativa L.), was a hybrid of F3 generation of Quan 9311B// Quan 9311B / Quanyouhuazhan and Quan 9311A, which was backcrossed for several generations. It was an indica three-line CMS line with blast resistance (containing Pi2 resistance gene) by molecular marker-assisted selection. The breeding process, characteristics, main advantages and disadvantages, the matters that should be paid attention to in production, and the test and trial planting of the combined varieties of the sterile line were introduced.
    Effects of different N, P, and K ratios on photosynthetic physiological characteristics, photosynthetic products, and grain yield of maize
    ZHU Jing-xue, WANG Ying, FANG Xiao-kun, CHEN Zhan-yu
    2023, 62(10):  13-21.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.004
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    In order to investigate the effects of different N, P, and K ratios on the photosynthetic physiological characteristics, photosynthetic products, and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.), field experiments were conducted to study the differences in leaf photosynthetic material production capacity at different growth stages under different fertilization levels, and to explore the optimal fertilization amount for maize, in order to provide reference for high-yield and efficient fertilization of maize in the central and northern regions of Jilin Province. The results showed that from the jointing stage to the mature stage, the chlorophyll content of maize leaves showed an overall trend of first increasing and then decreasing, while the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of leaves showed an overall downward trend. T10 treatment was the highest, and the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of leaves showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing;the soluble protein content, soluble sugar content, and starch content of T10 treatment were the highest from the jointing stage to the mature stage. The soluble protein content and soluble sugar content of corn leaves showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, while the starch content of leaves showed a trend of decreasing;reasonable application of N, P, and K had a certain impact on the stem diameter of corn. In addition to N fertilizer playing a decisive role, plant height and stem diameter were also related to P and K fertilizers;the lodging rate of T7 treatment was the highest, while the lodging rate of T1 treatment was the lowest; the maize grain yield under T10 treatment was the highest, with an increase of 176.6% compared to the control T0, and the difference reached a very significant level. Therefore, T10 treatment with N fertilizer level of 3 performed the best in terms of photosynthetic physiological characteristics and grain yield.
    Resource & Environment
    Study on the accumulation regularity of garlic nutrient elements in alkaline selenium-rich soil area
    DAI Lu, ZHANG Ya-feng, MA Qiang, WANG Shuai, HE Lian-zhen, QIN Yong-qiang
    2023, 62(10):  22-25.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.005
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    In order to master the law of accumulation of nutrient elements in garlic(Allium sativum L.) in alkaline selenium-rich soil area and provide support for high-quality development of garlic industry, based on the synergistic monitoring of garlic and soil in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, nine indexes of Se, Fe, Sr, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and I were analyzed, and quality evaluation was carried out by using characteristic parameters, enrichment coefficient and nutrient level. The results showed that the average content of Se, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg, Mn, I, Sr and Cr in garlic was 43.6 μg/kg, 2.10 mg/kg, 7.56 mg/kg, 0.017 g/kg, 0.27 g/kg, 3.33 mg/kg, 0.035 mg/kg, 2.6 mg/kg and 0.06 mg/kg, respectively. The garlic grown in selenium-rich soil(soil Se≥230 μg/kg) reached the selenium-rich level. The transport enrichment ability of Se, Zn and Cu in garlic was the strongest, the ability of Mg, I and Sr was moderate, and the ability of Mn, Fe and Cr was the weakest. Garlic had the ability of synergistic enrichment of Se, Cu, Zn, Cr and other nutrients. The contribution rate of Cu, Fe and Mn to the nutrients of the human body was the largest, the next was Se, and the lowest was Zn and I.
    Effect of different Mg fertilizer application on yield and magnesium fertilizer utilization rate of direct-sowing rapeseed
    CHEN Shao-qing, GENG Guo-tao, WANG Shao-hua, ZHOU Xiong, LU Zhi-feng, ZHANG Yang-yang, LIAO Shi-peng
    2023, 62(10):  26-29.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.006
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    Five magnesium fertilizer rates were set to study the effect of Mg application on yield and magnesium fertilizer utilization rate of direct-sowing rapeseed(Brassica campestris L.). The results showed that Mg application could significantly increase the yield of direct-sowing rape(P<0.05), and the maximum yield was reached at 45 kg/hm2 of MgO, and the yield increase was 387 kg/hm2 compared with no Mg application, with a yield increase of 18.0%. Also, Mg application increased the biomass proportion of seeds and pods and decreased the proportion of stems. Mg application significantly increased the number of pods per plant and seeds per pod of rapeseed, reaching the maximum at 45 kg/hm2 and 30 kg/hm2 of MgO, respectively, which increased by 17.8% and 12.1% compared to the treatment without Mg application. Mg application increased Mg content and accumulation in all parts of rapeseed, and the increase of horn sell and grain was significantly greater than that of the stem. The apparent utilization rate of Mg fertilizer tended to increase first and then decrease, reaching a maximum of 21.4% at 30 kg/hm2 of MgO, and the agronomic efficiency was greatest at 15 kg/hm2 of MgO, which was 11.7 kg/kg. Comprehensively considering yield, nutrient absorption and utilization, Mg application should be emphasized in this area, and the appropriate MgO application rate was 40~45 kg/hm2.
    Research on the law of greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields under the rice-shrimp planting and breeding model
    LI Qing-hai, XIE Qing-yun, YE Pei
    2023, 62(10):  30-36.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.007
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    A comparative monitoring experiment of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy fields under rice-shrimp planting and breeding mode and middle rice monoculture was carried out in Jianghan Plain by the static chamber-gas chromatography method. The characteristics of greenhouse gas emission intensity in paddy fields under rice-shrimp planting and breeding mode and the effects of surface water depth and temperature on greenhouse gas emissions from rice-shrimp planting and breeding fields were mainly explored, which would provide a reference for the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and the formulation of emission reduction technologies in the Jianghan Plain. The results showed that compared with the conventional middle rice field, the cumulative CH4 emission in rice-shrimp planting and breeding fields was significantly increased by 369.3%(P<0.05), and the cumulative N2O emission was significantly reduced by 33.3%(P<0.05). There was a reciprocal relationship between N2O and CH4 emissions. The main contribution of warming potential was CH4 emission, the greenhouse gas emission intensity of rice-shrimp planting and breeding fields was significantly increased by 1.06 kg CO2-e/kg compared with that of the conventional middle rice field. There were significant positive correlation between CH4 emission flux and surface water depth, and between CH4 emission flux and surface water temperature in rice-shrimp planting and breeding fields (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between N2O emission and temperature in the box in the conventional middle rice field during the non-flooding period (P<0.05). The high emission of greenhouse gases in rice-shrimp planting and breeding fields was mainly caused by the continuous flooding and anaerobic state, and it was the most critical to explore the CH4 emission reduction measures of this mode; the middle rice field had the low greenhouse gas emission due to the rotation of paddy-upland, and could be used as the main type of rice crop with low carbon emission reduction.
    Analysis and evaluation of phytoplankton diversity in Xinzhou City in autumn
    LIU Shuai, ZHAO Yan-chu, HUANG Yan-feng, ZHANG Deng-zhuang, SHI Ya-feng
    2023, 62(10):  37-44.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.008
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    The species of phytoplankton in typical rivers and reservoirs in Xinzhou City of Shanxi Province in autumn of 2020 were investigated, and their diversity was analyzed. The results revealed that in total 111 species and 8 phyla existed in rivers while 125 species and 8 phyla were found in reservoirs, providing the cell densities ranging within (0.009~13.110) ×106 cells/L, along with an average density of 3.299×106 cells/L in rivers, and the counterparts for reservoirs were(0.205~17.310)×106 cells/L and 6.526×106 cells/L respectively. As estimated, the universal dominant species in the sampling sites which represented the related drainage basin included Anabaena oscillarioides, Pseudanabaena sp., Chroomonas acuta, Chroomonas acuta, Synedra acus, Navicula capitatoradiata, Raphidiopsis sinensia, and Diatoma vulgare var. vulgure. It was concluded that the biomass and cell density of phytoplankton were spatially unevenly distributed as well. According to Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou uniformity index and Margalef richness index applied to calculate the overall phytoplankton diversity index of Xinzhou City, the phytoplankton resources in the reservoirs were basically abundant, the structure was practically stable, and the biodiversity was better than that of the rivers. The water quality of 22 sampling sites was mainly in the state of mild and moderate pollution.
    Measurement of carbon emissions from planting industry on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A case study of highland barley planting industry in Qinghai Province
    DING Ya-nan, DING Sheng-xi
    2023, 62(10):  45-50.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.009
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    In order to study the measurement of carbon emissions from the planting industry on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the carbon emissions, carbon emission intensity and carbon cost of the highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) planting industry in Qinghai Province were measured. Through the analysis of the total carbon emissions and agricultural carbon emissions in Qinghai Province from 1997 to 2019, it was found that the total carbon emissions in Qinghai Province were still high, and agricultural carbon emission had always been at a high level. Based on the agricultural carbon emission data of Qinghai Province from 1997 to 2019, a nonlinear sub-regression neural network model was built by using GUI toolbox in Matlab software, and a neural network timing tool was used to make multi-step prediction of agricultural carbon emission of Qinghai Province from 2020 to 2026. The results showed that from 2020 to 2026, agricultural carbon emissions in Qinghai Province would still show a trend of high fluctuation growth, and it was urgent to carry out “peak carbon dioxide emissions and carbon neutrality” emission reduction. After analyzing the sources of carbon emission from highland barley planting industry, six measuring indexes of agricultural diesel, artificial, chemical fertilizer, pesticide, agricultural film and N2O emission had been established. Then, an IPCC inventory estimation model was established based on the data of the established six indicators from 2015 to 2020, and the total carbon emission, carbon emission intensity and carbon cost of highland barley planting industry in Qinghai Province from 2015 to 2020 were measured. The results showed that, the total carbon emission of highland barley planting industry in Qinghai Province from 2015 to 2020 did not increase significantly with the increase of highland barley planting area, while the carbon emission intensity and carbon cost of highland barley planting industry decreased with the increase of highland barley planting area.
    Plant community stability evaluation on the top of peak forest in Wulingyuan Scenic Area based on GIS
    JU Yu-feng, TIAN Jian-lin, DING Bin-bin, ZENG Ting
    2023, 62(10):  51-57.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.010
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    Taking more than 3 000 peak forests in Wulingyuan Scenic Area as the object, based on remote sensing image interpretation and field survey data, the 17 indexes including three aspects of natural environment, community structural function and human disturbance were selected to construct the evaluation index system of plant community stability. Analytic hierarchy process and equal-distance method were used to determine the index weight, ArcGIS was used for weighted stacking, and the plant community stability was divided into five grades from high to low, namely Ⅴ, Ⅳ, Ⅲ, Ⅱ andⅠ . Based on this, plant community stability was evaluated and mapped, and the spatial distribution and causes of plant communities with different degrees of stability were analyzed. The results showed the areas occupied by peaks of Ⅴ, Ⅳ, Ⅲ, Ⅱ andⅠ were 14.37 km2, 17.16 km2, 16.26 km2, 13.74 km2 and 6.25 km2, respectively, accounting for 21.2%, 25.3%, 24.0%, 20.3% and 9.2%. The spatial distribution of plant community stability was high in the east and the south, low in the west and the north; the plant community was relatively stable in Wulingyuan Scenic Area, and nearly one third of the area was still at risk of degradation of the plant community at the top of peaks. Community stability was the result of the combined effects of natural environment and human disturbance. Among the factors that affected the stability of plant communities, the natural environment and human disturbance were stronger than the structural and functional factors of community.
    Distribution characteristics and dynamic changes of forest land carbon storage in the Qilian Mountains forest area of Gansu Province
    ZHAO Fang-yuan, WANG Qiong-fang, ZHAO Wan-kui, CHENG Xiao-yun
    2023, 62(10):  58-62.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.011
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    Based on the annual update data of a map of forest resources management in Gansu Province, the carbon storage of forest land was calculated by the biomass expansion factor method and the biomass per unit area method, and the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of forest land carbon storage in the Qilian Mountains forest area of Gansu Province from 2016 to 2019 were comprehensively analyzed combined with the land use type transition matrix. The results showed that grassland, unused land, and construction land transferred 22 600 t of carbon storage to forest land. After ecological construction was strengthened, there was a trend of turning grassland, unused land and construction land back to forest land. The carbon storage of arbor forest, sparse forest and shrub forest increased by 19.20% from 2016 to 2019, of which the increase of arbor forest carbon storage accounted for 98.26%, and the carbon storage of middle-aged forests and young forests with greater potential for carbon sink growth in the future had the fastest growth rates, which were 26.70% and 26.34%, respectively.
    Plant Protection
    Study on the mixed controlled atmosphere and low temperature insecticidal technology in cigarette production workshop
    ZHANG Chu-an, NIU Yan-li, WANG Le-jun, LIU De-qiang, WANG Yuan, ZHANG Yan, LIU Yong, YIN Peng, LI Xiang-fa
    2023, 62(10):  63-68.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.012
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    Taking Lasioderma serricorne as the study object, the insecticidal effect of mixed (N2, CO2) atmosphere and low temperature insecticidal method on cigarette production equipment were compared. The results showed that the mixed (N2, CO2) atmosphere could reduce the inner curtain to a lower oxygen concentration (1.0%~1.2%), and the appropriate concentration of carbon dioxide (10%~20%) could stimulate the Lasioderma serricorne to accelerate respiration, and could completely kill the adult and larva of Lasioderma serricorne in a shorter time (10 days); the low-temperature insecticidal method was adopted, which had a better insecticidal effect for hidden danger points of insect sources in partially closed cigarette production workshops.
    Isolation and identification of the pathogens of Passiflora coerulea L. stem rot in Baise, Guangxi
    YANG Cui-feng, TENG Zheng, YU Jue-yun, LIN You-lin
    2023, 62(10):  69-73.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.013
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    The pathogen of Passiflora coerulea L. stem rot in Baise City, Guangxi were isolated, cultured and identified by means of tissue separation, Koch's rule and rDNA-ITS sequencing. The results showed that 6 kinds of pathogenic fungi with different morphology and pathogenicity were isolated and identified. Four strains were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora nicotianae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Fusarium moniliforme, 2 strains were identified as Fusarium, but their the species had not been identified.
    Distribution and diffusion potential of alien plants in wetland of Chengdu
    GOU Xiao-lin, KANG Xin-wen, VLADIMIROV Dmitrii, CHEN Qing-song, WANG Ya-ting, FAN Hua, TU Wei-guo
    2023, 62(10):  74-82.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.014
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    Taking Chengdu City as a typical park city of China, the alien plants and their distribution of wetland in Chengdu City were investigated. The diffusion potential of exotic plants was studied through the diffusion model. And the distribution and invasive potential were discussed by the distribution models. The results showed that there were 61 species of alien plants distribute in wetland of Chengdu City, most of the alien plants distribute in terrestrial land and there were 16 species of alien invasive plants of level 1. The alien invasive plant with the widest distribution was Alternanthera philoxeroides in aquatic and terrestrial environment, with a rate over 97%, the distribution rates of alien plants such as Erigeron sumatrensis, Trifolium repens, Erigeron annuus and Bidens pilosa were over 20% in terrestrial environment, but all alien plants did not heavily invade ecosystem and had a low distribution density. Some alien invasive plants with a high risk of invasion still had greater diffusion potential. It was found that Cyperus involucratus had a trend of diffusion from water to terrestrial environment. In the process of wetland construction and management in Chengdu City in the future, it was suggested to strengthen the artificial control of the alien invasive plants of level 1, to further study the effect of artificial intervention on the control of alien invasive plants, and to prevent the spread of Cyperus involucratus and other garden plants with lower invasive grade.
    Horticulture & Local Products
    Explore the pharmacological mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
    CHEN Yang-ling, PAN Xiao-fang, XU Hao, CHEN Rui, HUO Li-ni, LIANG Yan
    2023, 62(10):  83-90.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.015
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    The network pharmacology and molecular docking were employed to investigate the active ingredients and pharmacological mechanism of Ganoderma lucidum. Taking oral availability and drug-like properties as evaluation indexes, active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum were screened from the TCMSP data platform, potential targets of active ingredients were predicted in the Swiss target prediction platform, and GO analysis and KEGG Pathway enrichment analysis were conducted using the David database. The “active ingredients-target-pathway” network was constructed using Cytoscape 3.8.0 software to predict the pharmacological mechanism of the active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum, and Sybyl-x 2.0 software was used to carry out the molecular docking verification. The results showed that 16 active ingredients were screened from polysaccharides, triterpenoids and steroids of Ganoderma lucidum, and 37 key targets, including AR, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, NR1H2, NRIH3, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, TDP1 and MAPT, were obtained by KEGG enrichment analysis. It involved 15 pathways, including Steroid hormone biosynthesis, Vascular smooth muscle contraction and Calcium signaling pathway. Molecular docking results showed that more than 60% of the active ingredients had good binding ability to the key targets, and the compound ergostere-7, 22-diene-3β-ol linoleate had the highest binding score to the target protein HSD17B2. The results of network pharmacological analysis showed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum mainly exerted therapeutic effects through vascular smooth muscle contraction, steroid hormone biosynthesis, insulin resistance and other pathways in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, tumors and other diseases.
    Effects of altitude and planting density on growth and yield of Angelica acutiloba in Yichang City
    YANG Ying-chun, LI Yun-fei, YAO Yu-ling, LI Nian-zu, FEI Fu-hua, YANG Hao, LI Rong-fang
    2023, 62(10):  91-94.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.016
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    To study the effects of altitude and planting density on growth and yield of Angelica acutiloba in Yichang city, Hubei Province, two altitude levels (600 m and 1 100 m) and three planting density levels (30 cm×40 cm, 35 cm×40 cm, 40 cm×40 cm) were set up, and the main agronomic characters of aboveground part in different periods and the main yield index in the harvest period of Angelica acutiloba were determined. The results showed that under the 600 m altitude and 35 cm×40 cm planting density treatment, the plant height of Angelica acutiloba in the vigorous growth period was the highest(14.80 cm), and the number of stems was more (5.20) at the peak growth stage. Under the 1 100 m altitude and 35 cm×40 cm or 40 cm × 40 cm planting density, the plant height was higher in the root swelling stage, which was 42.75、42.65 cm, respectively. Under the three treatments at 1 100 m altitude and one treatment with the planting density of 40 cm×40 cm under the 600 m altitude, the fresh root weight per plant was higher, which was 218.33~265.26 g. Under 1 100 m altitude and 30 cm×40 cm or 35 cm×40 cm planting density, the yields of fresh roots were higher, which were 15 157.83, 16 725.66 kg/hm2, respectively. Both fresh root weight per plant and equivalent fresh root yield had a significant negative correlation with the number of stems in the peak growth period, and the correlation coefficients were -0.868 and -0.820, respectively. In conclusion, planting at 600 m altitude was beneficial to the growth of Angelica acutiloba in the vigorous growth period, and planting at 1 100 m altitude was beneficial to increase the accumulation of nutrients in the aboveground part and improve the weight per plant and total yield. The planting density of 35 cm×40 cm and 40 cm×40 cm was beneficial to the growth of the aboveground part of Angelica acutiloba, and the planting density of 30 cm×40 cm was beneficial to increase the total yield. It was suitable to plant Angelica acutiloba under the conditions of 1 100 m altitude, 30 cm×40 cm planting density in Yichang City, and the yield per plant and total yield were higher.
    Comparative study on antioxidative activity in vitro of different polar parts of longan kernels from Luzhou City and Guangzhou City
    CHEN Yong-jun, DAI Liang-min, DAI Liang-ping, ZHANG Chun, WANG Yan
    2023, 62(10):  95-99.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.017
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    The antioxidant activity in vitro of different polar parts of Longan(Dimocarpus longan) kernels produced in Luzhou City, Sichuan Province and Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province were studied. The antioxidant activity of longan kernels from Luzhou Zhangba, Luzhou Huangyi and Guangzhou Liwan were extracted by 5 solvents with different polarities. The antioxidant activity of extracts was compared by DPPH and ABTS+· methods. The results showed that the weight of dry extracts of longan kernels from 3 producing areas (except Luzhou Zhangba)was n-butanol> ethyl acetate> anhydrous ethanol > deionized water > petroleum ether. The results of the in vitro antioxidant test showed that in DPPH method, except petroleum ether extract from longan kernels of Guangzhou Liwan producing area, all polar extract from other producing areas had higher free radical scavenging rate, and the ethyl acetate extract from Guangzhou Liwan producing area and Luzhou Zhangba producing area had the best antioxidant capacity, with IC50 of 0.021 mg/mL and 0.022 mg/mL, respectively. In ABTS+· method, the petroleum ether extract of longan kernels from all producing areas had the strongest ability to remove ABTS+ free radicals, followed by ethyl acetate extract, and Luzhou Zhangba longan kernels extract had the best antioxidant ability, with IC50 of 0.023 mg/mL.
    Study on anti-aging mechanism of Polygonati Rhizoma based on network pharmacology and molecular docking
    KE Chang-hu, YAN Hui, ZHAO Yang, ZHU Jun, LI Zhi-hao
    2023, 62(10):  100-108.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.018
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    The material basis and mechanism of anti-aging of Polygonati Rhizoma were revealed by network pharmacology and molecular docking. The chemical composition of Polygonati Rhizoma was obtained through TCMSP database; and the relevant target corresponding to the chemical composition of Polygonati Rhizoma was collected through Swiss target prediction database; the relevant targets of aging diseases were screened in GeneCards, OMIM, DiGSeE and HAGR databases; Venny 2.1 online software was used to obtain the common targets of drugs-disease; the“drug-ingredient-target-disease” network was constructed by using the software Cytoscape 3.8.2; the protein interaction network was constructed by using STRING database; GO functional enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were carried out through DAVID database, and molecular docking verification of key active ingredients and action targets was performed using AutoDock software. The results showed that 12 active components of Polygonati Rhizoma produced anti-aging effects by regulating 81 targets and 79 pathways. The five key chemical components were baicalein, 4′,5-dihydroxyflavone, glycyrrhizin, (2R)-7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one, and zhonghualiaoine 1, which could mediate pathways in cancer, proteoglycans in cancer, HIF-1, Ras, central carbon metabolism in cancer, PI3K-Akt, FoxO, Rap1 and other signaling pathways through EGFR, VEGFA, HIF1A, ESR1, STAT3 and other key target proteins to play anti-aging roles. Molecular docking showed that the screened target protein had good binding activity with the active ingredient.
    Universality validation of molecular markers for sex identification in Idesia polycarpa Maxim.
    YAN Li, TONG Zhu, HE Xiu-juan, XIAO Cui, WANG Ze-qiong, YUAN Long-yi, SUN Zhong-hai, QIU Wen-ming
    2023, 62(10):  109-114.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.019
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    Using 120 samples of Idesia polycarpa with known sex, the universality of the two reported molecular markers UBC841 and STZ was tested for sex determination of Idesia polycarpa. Meanwhile, a large number of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence related amplified polymorphisms(SRAP) markers were analyzed for their polymorphism in male and female plants of Idesia polycarpa. The results showed that UBC841 could detect polymorphic bands in 24 samples of Idesia polycarpa, but no gender-specific bands were detected. STZ could amplify the target band in some samples, but did not show the sex specificity of male and female bands. These two groups of markers did not show good universality, and the accuracy of gender discrimination was low. In addition, 26 ISSR primers and 780 pairs of SRAP primers were screened, but no sex-specific markers were obtained, indicating that it was difficult to screen stable and reliable sex-specific markers in Idesia polycarpa by using universal molecular markers ISSR and SRAP.
    Effects of plastic mulching cultivation methods on the growth and soil nutrients of peppers in open fields in northern Jiangsu Province
    DING Ying, LIU Yan-yan
    2023, 62(10):  115-118.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.020
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    In order to explore better plastic film mulching cultivation methods for peppers in open fields in northern Jiangsu Province, the commonly used local variety Sujiao No.5 was used as experimental material. Two plastic film mulching cultivation methods were set up, including plastic mulching only on the ridge surface(T2), and the ridge and furrow with plastic mulching on whole ground(T3). Taking no plastic mulching(T1)as the control (CK), the effects of different plastic film mulching cultivation methods on the growth, yield, soil nitrogen, salinity, and pH of peppers in open fields were studied. The results showed that compared to T1 treatment, T3 treatment could advance the initial flowering, fruiting, and harvesting stages of peppers by at least 5 days, and significantly improve the quality and yield of fresh peppers by 18.95% and 11.99%, respectively; at the seedling stage, flowering and fruiting stage, and maturity stage, the pepper plant height of T3 treatment was significantly higher than that of T1 treatment by 34.28%, 30.30%, and 16.66%, respectively, and the pepper plant stem diameter was significantly higher than that of T1 treatment by 42.75%, 26.79%, and 26.64%, respectively; in the mature stage, the unfolding degree of T3 treatment could reach 78.9 cm×81.2 cm, and the aboveground dry mass was significantly higher than that of T1 and T2 treatments by 24.35% and 12.01%, respectively. During the flowering and fruiting period, the soil TN content of T2 and T3 treatments was significantly lower than that of T1 treatment by 5.77% and 24.04%, respectively. The soil available nitrogen content was significantly lower than that of T1 treatment by 12.99% and 12.27%, respectively; during the seedling and maturity stages, the water-soluble salt content of 0~20 cm soil layer treated by T3 treatment was significantly lower than that treated by T1 treatment by 85.26% and 17.35%, respectively.
    Spatial distribution characteristics of soil seed bank of Malus sieversii population in Emin County
    YU Ting, HU Xiao-jing, XING Hao-wen
    2023, 62(10):  119-123.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.021
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    The field investigation method was used to analyze the soil seed bank level and seed germination characteristics of Malus sieversii population in different habitats and different directions in Emin County, and to understand the spatial distribution pattern of Malus sieversii soil seed bank in Emin County, in order to explore the restrictive factors and mechanism of seedling regeneration of Malus sieversii. The results showed that, the average total density of the soil seed bank of Malus sieversii was 10.20 grains/m2. There were great differences in the number of seeds with different retention conditions in the soil, which was rotten seed > empty seed > intact seed. The germination rate of intact seeds was low. There was no significant difference in seed storage among different habitats, which showed as follows: sunny slope>shady slope>valley bottom. In vertical space, the number of seeds decreased with the increase of soil depth, and the density of the soil seed bank changed little in different habitats. Most of the seeds fell into the litter layer, and the litter layer would hinder the seed contact with the soil and germination. Disturbing the surface litter layer was helpful for Malus sieversii seeds to enter the soil and germinate. The poor renewal of the soil seed bank might be the reason why the number of seedlings of Malus sieversii was rare and the reproduction of the population was difficult to sustain.
    Effects of hemp film on growth and development environment of soilless cultivated pepper
    NIU Yan-lei, SUN Zi-yi, SUN Xiao-ying, CHEN Xiao-feng
    2023, 62(10):  124-131.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.022
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    In order to study the effect of hemp mulch on the growth and development environment of soilless cultivated peppers, the basic physicochemical properties of soil and substrate, growth and development of peppers, as well as the quantity of soil microorganisms of peppers' inter-root were investigated by using the single facter variable method in four treatments, namely, soil culture without mulching (CK), PE film soil culture (T1), PE film substrate cultivation (T2), and hemp film-covered soilless culture (T3). The results showed that compared with the CK, T1 and T2 treatments, the T3 treatment significantly improved the yield and quality of peppers. Compared with the CK, the soluble sugar and VC content of peppers increased by 21.13% and 49.26%, respectively. Compared with the pre-planting period, the organic matter content, quick-acting nitrogen content, quick-acting phosphorus content and quick-acting potassium content in the soil or substrate of CK, T1, T2 and T3 treatments were increased, among which the content of the T3 treatment increased the most obviously. It could be seen from the analysis that hemp mulch enhanced the physicochemical properties of the substrate more obviously, improved the substrate conductivity as well as the porosity size, raised the ground temperature, increased the diversity of bacteria in the substrate, reduced the fungal abundance, which in turn was conducive to accelerating the decomposition of nutrients, and had a greater effect on the root environment and the growth and development of plants.
    Study on the spectral characteristics of main tree species in Davidia involucrate community in Wulingyuan scenic spot
    ZENG Ting, TIAN Jian-lin, DING Bin-bin, WANG Gao, ZHOU Zi-qun, XU Qin-qian
    2023, 62(10):  132-136.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.023
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    In order to find out the characteristic spectrum of Davidia involucrata, a rare plant in Wulingyuan scenic spot, Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, and its main tree species in the community, using the ASD FieldSpec 4 portable ground object spectrometer, the reflectance spectra of five tree species, including Davidia involucrata, Euscaphiss japonica, Acer palmatumAtropurpureum', Cinnamomum camphora and Schima superba were analyzed using differential and continuum removal methods. The results showed that the original spectral curve was located in the near-infrared band, and there were significant differences in the reflectance of the main tree species in the Davidia involucrata community. The optimal bands for identification were 780~920 nm, 1 000~1 349 nm, 1 427~1 590 nm, 1 590~1 785 nm, and 1 981~2 459 nm; 490~530 nm, 550~582 nm, 680~760 nm, 1 110~1 190 nm were the best distinguishing bands obtained by combining first-order differential data with “trilateral parameter” analysis; based on the analysis of the continuum removal curve, the curve highlighted four absorption valleys and one reflection peak, with characteristic bands of 440~500 nm, 520~640 nm, 640~690 nm. The spectral absorption characteristic parameters were analyzed based on the continuum removal data in the 540~760 nm band, and the five types of tree species could be distinguished by the absorption peak area and spectral absorption coefficient in this band.
    Aquatic Science
    Research on genus Odontobutis in Hubei Province
    WANG Xue, LIU Yi-ran, REN Yan, LI Bo, XIE De-bing, ZHU Si-hua
    2023, 62(10):  137-142.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.024
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    Genus Odontobutis were a group of demersal piscivore freshwater fishes native to East Asia. Two species were described in Hubei Province, O. sinensis and O. potamophilus. The advances in studies of genus Odontobutis in Hubei Province with respect to classification, morphology, ecology and genetics were briefly reviewed. Some advice was proposed for artificial breeding, effective management and rational utilization of these resources.
    Pre- and postprandial changes of orexigenic factors and anorexigenic factors in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella
    GUO Wei, YANG Hui-jun, MO Ai-jie, SUN Jun-xiao, ZHAI Yu-xiang, YI Lin-yuan, YUAN Yong-chao
    2023, 62(10):  143-148.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.025
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    The transcriptional levels of ghrelin, npy, cart, cck and leptin in the brain and intestinal tissues of grass carp before and after feeding were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR to explore the variation laws of their mRNA transcripts. The results showed that transcription levels of ghrelin mRNA in the brain of grass carp reached the maximum peak 2 h before feeding (P<0.05), and then decreased significantly, but there were no significant changes in the expression levels within 4 h after feeding (P>0.05). The mRNA expression level of npy in the brain was significantly higher within 2 h before feeding than 2 h after feeding(P<0.05), while its mRNA expression presented an opposite trend in the foregut. Meanwhile, the expression levels of anorexigenic factors (cck, cart and leptin) in brain and foregut kept stable at a low level 2 h before feeding, while a significant increase was observed 1~2 h after feeding in the fed group (P<0.05). The GH content in plasma after feeding exhibited a trend of rising first and then decreasing, the peak value was delayed to 1 h after feeding.
    Monitoring of Charybdis feriatus artificial breeding environment based on Internet of things technology
    ZOU Xiong, YANG Ming-qiu, PU Li-yun, LU Jian-xue, XIA Lian-jun, LIU Xin
    2023, 62(10):  149-153.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.026
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    In order to improve the artificial breeding quality of Charybdis feriatus, the environmental monitoring system would be studied and designed using the Internet of things technology. First of all, the remote monitoring system of the Internet of things for the artificial breeding environment of Charybdis feriatus was designed, including the design of the overall structure of the system, the local monitoring subsystem, the remote monitoring subsystem and the water quality monitoring system. In addition, for the prediction of dissolved oxygen data in water quality detection, the improved LMBP (Levenberg Marquardt Back Propagation) algorithm was used to design it. The results showed that the designed artificial breeding environment monitoring system could better realize the intelligent control of the breeding environment of Charybdis feriatus, and reduce human and material resources. In addition, the improved LMBP algorithm could better predict the dissolved oxygen.
    Storage & Processing
    Research on the biological activities of terpene phenolic compounds from Plakortis simplex
    LIU Xin-lian, ZHUANG Jiang-chao, ZHOU Xin-hang, TANG Ji-hang, ZHANG Sheng-yuan, WANG Jie
    2023, 62(10):  154-157.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.027
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    The chemical composition of Plakortis simplex collected from Xisha Islands in the South China Sea was studied. The terpene phenolic compounds from Plakortis simplex were tracked and enriched efficiently by LC-MS combined with HPLC. The antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of terpene phenolic compounds were detected by MTT assay and luciferase double reporter gene assay respectively. The results showed that eight known terpene phenolic compounds, Plakordiol A(1), Plakordiol B(2), Plakordiol C(3), Plakordiol D(4), (7R,10R)-Hydroxycurcudiol(5), (7R,10S)-Hydroxycurcudiol(6), (7R*,10R*)-Abolene(7) and (7R*,10S*)-Abolene(8), which were four pairs of differential isomers, were enriched and isolated from the n-butanol extract of the sponge. All the compounds showed cytotoxicity against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 20 mmol/L. Plakordiol A(1) and Plakordiol C(3) showed inhibitory activity against the transcription of RXRα induced by 9-cis-retinoic acid, with significant differences compared to the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). While Plakordiol D(4) promoted the transcriptional activity of RXRα, with significant differences compared with the model group (P<0.01). Plakordiol A(1) inhibited the activation of NF-κB induced by TNF-α and had significant differences compared to the model group (P<0.05).
    Effects of different storage warehouses on the aging quality of Brazilian tobacco
    LIU Yuan-shang, LIANG Yong-wei, XU Chun-ping, GONG Mei-qiu, WU Pan, LIU Ya-long, LI Li-peng, ZHANG Peng-yuan
    2023, 62(10):  158-165.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.028
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    In order to clarify the effects of different aging methods on the aging quality of Brazilian L10AT tobacco leaves, Brazilian tobacco leaves stored in the mechanical warehouse, natural warehouse and moisturizing warehouse were taken as experimental materials. Samples were taken after aging for 3, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months respectively, and the changes of conventional chemical components and important aroma components were measured. The effects of different aging methods on the aging quality of tobacco leaves were studied. The results showed that during the aging process of tobacco leaves in three storage warehouses, different aging warehouses had no significant effect on the content of chloride ion and nicotine in tobacco leaves, but had significant effects on the content of reducing sugar, total sugar and sugar alkali ratio in tobacco leaves. In addition, aging time had a significant effect on the content of chloride ion, nicotine, reducing sugar, total sugar and sugar alkali ratio in tobacco leaves. The contents of nicotine, reducing sugar and total sugar showed a decreasing trend during the aging process, and the contents of reducing sugar and total sugar of tobacco stored in the mechanical warehouse were the lowest. The total amount of important aroma components and the content of neophytodiene in aging tobacco leaves were the highest in the mechanical warehouse. The principal component analysis of the important aroma components in the three aging warehouses showed that the three aging methods were far away, indicating that the three aging methods had obvious differences.
    Detection Analysis
    HPLC determination of quercetin and kaempferol in Qingqianliu leaves
    LI Jun-xiu, LIAO Xia-yun, ZHAO Li-chun, LIANG Jie
    2023, 62(10):  166-171.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.029
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    The hydrolysis extraction conditions and content determination method of two flavonoid aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) in Qingqianliu [Cyclocarya paliurus (Bata1.) Iljinskaja] leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were studied to, provide reference for quality control of Qingqianliu leaves.Using ethanol-hydrochloric acid mixed solution as the solvent, the extraction and hydrolysis conditions were investigated using a combination of single factor and orthogonal experiments;content determination was conducted using Agilent C18 chromatographic column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) as the separation column and acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (volume ratio 35∶65) as the mobile phase, with a detection wavelength of 370 nm, a column temperature of 30 ℃, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The results showed that the optimized extraction and hydrolysis conditions were as follows: Ethanol hydrochloric acid (volume ratio 8∶1) was used as the solvent, and the material-to-liquid ratio was 1∶20 each time, with a 90 ℃ constant temperature water bath reflux for 60 min. The injection volume of quercetin and kaempferol showed a good linear relationship, ranging from 0.080 8 to 0.808 7 μg (R2=0.999 7) and from 0.096 4 to 0.964 6 μg (R2=0.999 9), respectively;the average recovery rate of quercetin was 100.97%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.93%. The average recovery rate of kaempferol was 97.25%, and the relative standard deviation was 3.29%. The extraction and hydrolysis process could significantly increase the content of flavonoid glycosides in Qingqianliu leaves;the established detection method was fast, accurate, and had good repeatability, which could provide technical reference for the quality evaluation of Qingqianliu leaves medicinal materials.
    Simultaneous determination of 10 nitroimidazole drugs residues in aquatic products by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    XIE Yun-bo, YI Ming, TONG Wen-yu, ZENG Zhi, ZHU Zhi-qiang, SHI Yi-fu
    2023, 62(10):  172-177.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.030
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    A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established for the detection of nitroimidazole drugs residues in aquatic products. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate, distilled under reduced pressure, purified with n-hexane, and the residue was dissolved in 10% methanol before passing through a C18 chromatographic column (150 mm×2 mm, 5 μm). Separation was carried out using 0.20% formic acid aqueous solution acetonitrile as the mobile phase, gradient elution was performed, and the target compound was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The detection limit of the method was 0.04~0.30 μg/kg, the quantitative limit was 0.50~1.00 μg/kg, the linear relationship was good within the range of 1~150 μg/L, and the correlation coefficient (R2) was >0.998 00. At spiked level of 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, the recovery rate was 73.0%~116.2%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.43%~9.53%. This method was easy to operate, highly sensitive, and had good reproducibility, making it suitable for the detection of large batches of samples.
    Analysis of volatile components in cassia twig, white peony, and their drug pairs by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    DAI Quan-wu, LIU Yi, ZENG Ge-ge, TIAN Yu, HUANG Zhen-yang
    2023, 62(10):  178-184.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.031
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    The volatile components of cassia twig, white peony, and their drug pairs were analyzed using headspace solid-phase microextraction(HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS)(HS-SPME-GC-MS). The optimal extraction conditions were investigated using single factor analysis. The relative content of each component was calculated using the area normalization method, and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were the sample size of 0.60 g, extraction temperature of 60 ℃, extraction time of 15 min, and analysis time of 3 min. Cassia twig, white peony, and their drug pairs identified 47, 49, and 54 components, and the relative contents were 96.91%, 90.58%, and 94.57%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed significant differences in the comprehensive scores of cassia twig, white peony, and their drug pairs, with cassia twig and white peony drug pair having the highest comprehensive score. The volatile components in the cassia twig and white peony drug pair mainly came from cassia twig. The volatile components after the combination of cassia twig and white peony were significantly different from those in a single drug, and there was a significant change in relative content.
    Analysis and application of 11 phenolic compounds in celery based on high performance liquid chromatography
    BAI Tian, CUI Xin-yi, LI Ning, CHENG Wei-xia, ZHANG Bin, LIU Jing-bo
    2023, 62(10):  185-190.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.032
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    Taking 10 types of celery (Apium graveolens L.) as test materials, a Venusil XBP Cl8 (L) chromatographic column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used. Using 0.2% acetic acid solution-methanol as the mobile phase, gradient elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min; a PDA detector with a detection wavelength of 240 nm was adopted. A method was established for the simultaneous determination of 11 phenolic compounds in celery using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the selection of chromatographic columns, mobile phase conditions, and gradient elution conditions were optimized. The results showed that the linear relationship of 11 phenolic substances was good ranging from 0.5 to 10.0 μg/mL,and the correlation coefficient was greater than or equal to 0.990. Recovery experiments were conducted on celery samples with spiked levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.0 mg/kg, with recoveries ranging from 71.90% to 134.00% and relative standard deviation (RSD) ranging from 0.30% to 4.00%. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were 0.07~0.29 mg/kg and 0.20~0.84 mg/kg, respectively. All active ingredients had good stability within 24 hours, and the relative standard deviation was less than 3.00%. This method had been successfully applied to the determination of 11 phenolic compounds in 10 types of celery. Combined with cluster analysis, it was found that there were similarities in phenolic components among different varieties of celery, but there were differences in their contents among different varieties. This method had high sensitivity and precision, and could provide technical support for the analysis of 11 phenolic compounds in celery.
    Agricultural Engineering
    Development and application of laboratory rolling method sheet device for reconstructed tobacco leaves
    LIU Xing-le, ZHANG Dun-tie, WANG Ji-li, YANG Jun-peng, ZHU Feng, XIA Fan, WANG Hao, DENG Jie
    2023, 62(10):  191-194.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.033
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    The rolling method sheet device for reconstructed tobacco leaves in the laboratory environment was developed, and a study was conducted on the influence of drying parameters on the quality of trial produced thin films in the laboratory environment. The laboratory rolling method sheet device mainly included a rolling module, a thickness control module, a thin sheet stripping module, and a hot air drying module. It had advantages such as adjustable and controllable thin sheet thickness, uniform thickness, low demand for tobacco powder raw materials, small footprint, and short sample preparation time;using an oven to simulate the thin film drying process in a laboratory environment, the influence of drying parameters on the quality of trial produced thin films was studied through the orthogonal test. The results showed that the thickness of the thin sheet prepared by the laboratory rolling method sheet device was 0.1~0.4 mm, with a thickness deviation of ±0.02 mm;the optimal drying process conditions in the laboratory were obtained through orthogonal experiments, that was, when the drying temperature was 95 ℃ and the drying time was 180 seconds, the sensory quality evaluation score of the thin film was the highest.
    The baking effect and exhaust emissions of renewable energy bakery
    YANG Nan, LI Jun-ying, CAI Xian-jie, CHANG Dong, YAN Hai-tao, XU Yue-qi, YAN Ding, CAO Ya-fan, WANG Xiao-qiang, WANG Ming-xin, HE Xiao-bing, XU Cheng-yue
    2023, 62(10):  195-203.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.034
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    In order to further explore the advantages of the renewable energy bakery, the effects of five renewable energy bakeries, namely biomass bakery, heat pump bakery, alcohol based bakery, solar assisted bakery, and tunnel bakery, on the conventional chemical components, neutral aroma components, polyphenol compounds, organic acids, economic benefits, and exhaust emissions of cured tobacco leaves were studied, using coal fuel bakery as a control.Compared with the coal fuel curing barn, the content of total sugar and reducing sugar in flue-cured tobacco leaves from five renewable energy curing barns increased significantly;the content of neutral aroma components in tobacco leaves increased by 52.11%, 13.17%, 6.99%, and 5.16% in solar assisted bakery, tunnel bakery, biomass bakery, and heat pump bakery, respectively;the content of polyphenols in tobacco leaves increased by 25.66% and 5.73% respectively after being cured in alcohol based bakery and heat pump bakery;the organic acid content in solar assisted bakery and tunnel bakery increased by 13.71% and 0.89%, respectively;the average price of tobacco leaves in solar assisted bakery, heat pump bakery, and biomass bakery increased by 2.42, 2.27, and 1.05 yuan/kg, respectively, while the average price of dry tobacco decreased by 0.98, 0.86, and 0.18 yuan/kg, respectively;the concentration of unorganized exhaust gas in heat pump bakery, alcohol based bakery, solar assisted bakery, and tunnel bakery was relatively low. Overall, renewable energy bakery was more in line with the development needs of the industry to improve quality and efficiency, as well as the green and low-carbon social development needs, especially solar assisted bakery and heat pump bakery.
    Information Engineering
    The spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and regional differences of agricultural digital development level:Taking Shandong Province as an example
    LIAO Yan, WANG Qing, XIE Yun, LI Jing-ping
    2023, 62(10):  204-211.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.035
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    Based on relevant data from 16 prefecture-level cities in Shandong Province from 2012 to 2021,firstly, an agricultural digital development level indicator system was constructed,secondly, the entropy weight method was used to effectively measure the agricultural digital development level of prefecture-level cities in Shandong Province,finally, the dynamic evolution characteristics, spatial clustering characteristics, regional differences, and sources of the agricultural digital development level in Shandong Province were analyzed through non parametric kernel density estimation, Moran's I, and Dagum Gini coefficient. The results showed that the agricultural digital development level of 16 prefecture-level cities in Shandong Province was imbalanced, and the polarization problem of the agricultural digital development level in the provincial capital economic circle was more serious. The Jiaodong economic circle showed a multipolar trend, while the Lunan economic circle tended to be average;the overall agricultural digital development level in Shandong Province exhibited spatial agglomeration characteristics of “high-high” combination and “low-high” combination;the differential contribution rate of the agricultural digital development level in Shandong Province was ranked from large to small among economic circles, super variable density, and within the economic circle.Therefore, measures such as developing characteristic agriculture, adapting to local conditions, improving digital infrastructure, technology assistance to agriculture, extending the agricultural industry chain, increasing commercialization rates, strengthening regional cooperation, and narrowing disparities could be taken to improve the agricultural digital development level of Shandong Province.
    An edge computing model applied to the identification of invasive species in Yunnan Province
    LUO Ling, SONG Ke, WANG Hao, ZI Cai-fei, FENG Wei, DU Ming-ming, SUN Zhong-xiang, CAO Zhi-yong
    2023, 62(10):  212-217.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.036
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    Based on the MobileNet model migration, four main invasive species (Bidens bipinnata, Cassia plant, water peanut, and Eupatorium adenophorum) images in Yunnan Province were identified. The MobileNet-v2 models with width ratios of 1.0 and 1.4 were applied to the dataset in this study for experiments. The reasons for the unstable recognition of the MobileNet-v2 network model were analyzed, and the model was improved by adding channel attention mechanism modules, updating activation functions, and compressing network layers. The results showed that the improved MobileNet-v2 model had a recognition accuracy of 96.8%, and the model parameter quantity was only 15 359 093. The improved MobileNet-v2 model had high recognition accuracy and fewer model parameters, making it suitable for deployment at the edge, and could be better applied to the field of invasive species control in Yunnan Province.
    Economy & Management
    Study on the influencing factors of brand construction of geographical indication agricultural products under the background of rural revitalization
    SUN Feng-lin, SUN Rui-long
    2023, 62(10):  218-222.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.037
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    The data obtained from 603 valid questionnaires were used to explore the influencing factors of the brand construction of geographical indication agricultural products by the empirical analysis method. The results showed that under the background of consumption upgrading, customers' own consumption had become the main purpose of purchasing geographical indication agricultural products. The loyalty of consumers of buying geographical indication agricultural products by picking at the origin was the highest, indicating that consumers still had the traditional concept of “what you saw was what you got”. Exquisite packaging and reputation factors were the significant factors that influenced whether consumers chose the geographical indication agricultural products. The product classic story factor was the most significant reason why consumers were willing to pay the premium for the geographical indication agricultural products. Therefore, the brand construction of geographical indication agricultural products should be based on consumer emotion and use the marketing method of storytelling to touch consumers. Packaging design should be combined with regional characteristics, cultural connotation and historical heritage characteristics to create a brand, in order to stand out in the seriously homogenized agricultural products market. The safety and quality problem of agricultural products was still very serious. It was of far-reaching significance to establish the geographical indication agricultural products brands with high credibility as soon as possible by scientific and technological means and brand reputation.
    The impact of rural ecological environment on farmland abandonment:Taking CHIP2018 data as an example
    ZHOU Hai-wen
    2023, 62(10):  223-229.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.038
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    The CHIP2018 farmers' micro data was used to study the impact of rural ecological environment quality on farmland abandonment behavior and its internal mechanism by Probit model and mesomeric effect model. The results showed that the improvement of ecological environment quality had a negative impact on the abandonment behavior of farmland, with significant effects in the main grain producing areas and dry land planting areas, but not significant effects in non-grain producing areas and paddy field planting areas. Mechanism analysis showed that improving the quality of rural ecological environment could reduce the farmland abandonment of farmers by reducing the rate of rural labor going out to work. To this end, it was necessary to strengthen the protection of rural ecological environment, promote the construction of a “trinity” protection system for farmland, strictly implement the accountability system, increase the cost of abandoned farmland of farmers, improve the farmland transfer system, achieve effective allocation of farmland resources, and ensure national food security.
    Research on the relationship between industrial water and economic growth based on the perspective of grey water footprint: A case study of Hubei Province
    ZHANG Ye-yu, LI Ang, ZHAO Wen-qi, LI Lu-ji
    2023, 62(10):  230-233.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.039
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    From the perspective of gray water footprint, based on the time series data of Hubei Province from 2003 to 2019 and the grey water footprint and Environmental Kuznets Curve theory, an empirical analysis on the relationship between industrial grey water footprint and economic growth through the methods of unit root test and co-integration test was conducted. The results showed that the relationship between industrial grey water footprint and economic growth was in line with the assumptions of the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory, but different from the traditional inverted “U” curve. The relationship curve obtained from the perspective of gray water footprint presented an inverted “N” shape and there was no turning point. The possible reason was that the structural and technological effects of Hubei Province had long been stronger than the scale effects, which led to a decline in industrial gray water footprint with economic growth, and it was an approximately monotonously decreasing trend.
    Evaluation of low-carbon agricultural development level in the Yangtze River Economic Belt based on entropy method
    DU Wen
    2023, 62(10):  234-239.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.040
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    To enhance the development level of low-carbon agricultural economy in China, the entropy method was used to evaluate the development level of low-carbon agricultural development level in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The results showed that the average annual yield increase rate of low-carbon agriculture development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2012 to 2019 was 3.16%, leading the country by 0.57 percentage points. The agricultural economic indicators of the Yangtze River Economic Belt had increased by 0.222 3 points, with an average annual growth rate of 6.29%. The carbon level indicators of low-carbon agriculture in the Yangtze River Economic Belt had increased by 0.251 6 points, with an average annual growth rate of 6.41%. Electricity consumption, fertilizer use, and carbon sink had a positive impact on carbon emission efficiency, while employees and pesticide usage had a negative impact on carbon emission efficiency.
    The influence of cultivated land use transformation on economic development at different scales
    PENG Hong-bing, QIAN Zhao-dong, SANG Xin-chun
    2023, 62(10):  240-246.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.041
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    The transformation of cultivated land use from the perspective of functional form and spatial form was measured, the characteristics of the transformation of cultivated land use in poor areas of western Hubei from 2000 to 2018 were described, and the law of the influence of cultivated land use transformation on economic development from different perspectives in two research scales of regional and county was explained. The results showed that the transformation of cultivated land use could be regarded as a breakpoint change of cultivated land use pattern in time series; the transformation of cultivated land use had a certain promoting effect on regional economic development, but with economic development, the influence gradually decreased; the transformation of cultivated land use not only promoted the economic development of western Hubei, but also restricted the economic development of western Hubei.
    Research on the measurement and promotion path of high-quality development level of rural economy
    SHANG Ying-bin, WU Qian, DUAN Lu-feng, WEI Ming, SHENG Pan-feng
    2023, 62(10):  247-257.  doi:10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2023.10.042
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    Based on the panel data of thirty provinces (cities,municipalities) from 2013 to 2018, the entropy weight method was used to measure the high-quality development level of rural economy, and the Dagum Gini coefficient was used to analyze the regional differences. The results showed that the high-quality development level of rural economy in China was generally not high. In the time dimension, the level of high-quality development of rural economy was constantly improving, and the momentum of development was positive. In the space dimension, the high-quality development level of rural economy of the four regions from high to low was the eastern, northeastern, central and western regions, and the source of the gap was mainly regional differences. To promote the high-quality development of rural economy, the promotion paths of improving the innovation ability of backward areas, breaking the barriers to the flow of urban and rural factors layer by layer, adhering to green development as the base, optimizing the economic structure of developed areas, and comprehensively improving the rural social security system were put forward.